Psychological effects of dating violence

It is frequently the case that two or more types of abuse are present in the same relationship.

Emotional abuse often precedes, occurs with, and/or follows physical or sexual abuse in relationships (Koss et al., 1994; Stets, 1991; Tolman, 1992; Walker, 1984).

The term "intimate relationships" is used here to be maximally inclusive of any romantic and/or sexual relationship between two non-biologically-related people, including dating or courtship relationships, relationships in which the romantic partners live together in the same household (cohabiting), relationships in which two people have children in common but are no longer formally romantically or sexually involved with one another, and marital relationships.

Ideally such relationships are loving and supportive, protective of and safe for each member of the couple.

Therefore, despite some conceptual and experiential overlap, the various forms of abuse also are separable conceptually and experientially.

Although rape victims commonly report injuries and issues with their reproductive health after the sexual assault, rape doesn't always involve physical force.

The most common and lasting effects of rape involve mental health concerns and diminished social confidence.

Physical effects of rape can arise from both forced sexual assault and those not involving forcible submission, such as drug assisted date rape.

This also could be considered a subcategory of emotional abuse since it serves many of the same functions as emotional abuse.

It can be distinguished by its focus on interfering with and destroying or impairing the victim's support network and making the victim entirely or largely dependent on the abusive partner for information, social interaction, and satisfying emotional needs.

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